You may need to read the previous articles about attributes, uniforms, and varyings in order to understand this one.

A texture is an array of data that can be randomly accessed in a shader program. Textures are mostly used to store image data.

In a shader, a sampler uniform is used to reference a texture. The texture function is used to get data out of a texture at the given texture coordinates. Texture space is a coordinate system in the interval [0,1][0,1] from left to right and from the first pixel on the first line to the last pixel on the last line.

#version 300 es

precision highp float;

in vec2 v_texcoord;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;

out vec4 outColor;

void main() {
	outColor = texture(u_texture, v_texcoord);

In order to access a texture in WebGL, a texture object must be created and bound to an appropriate binding point with the WebGL API (much like a buffer).

const texture = gl.createTexture();

gl.bindTexture(gl.TEXTURE_2D, texture);

// Fill the texture with one blue pixel as a placeholder.
gl.texImage2D(gl.TEXTURE_2D, 0, gl.RGBA, 1, 1, 0, gl.RGBA,
	gl.UNSIGNED_BYTE, new Uint8Array([0, 0, 255, 255]));

Create an image, make it load data, and put it into the
texture once it's ready.
const image = new Image();
image.addEventListener("load", () => {
	gl.bindTexture(gl.TEXTURE_2D, texture);
	gl.texImage2D(gl.TEXTURE_2D, 0, gl.RGBA, gl.RGBA,
		gl.UNSIGNED_BYTE, image);
image.crossOrigin = ""; // CORS
image.src = "https://www.lakuna.pw/images/" +

Instead of taking a texture as the value of a sampler uniform directly, WebGL expects a texture unit representing the texture.

// Select a texture unit.

// Assign a texture to the texture unit.
gl.bindTexture(gl.TEXTURE_2D, texture);

// Pass the texture unit to the sampler uniform.
gl.uniform1i(imageUniformLocation, 0);

μGL handles texture units automatically.

const texture = new Texture2D({
	pixels: new Uint8Array([0xFF, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xFF]),
	width: 1,
	height: 1

const image = new Image();
image.addEventListener("load", () => {
	texture.pixels = image;
	texture.width = undefined;
	texture.height = undefined;
image.crossOrigin = "";
image.src = "https://www.lakuna.pw/images/" +

program.uniforms.get("u_texture").value = texture;

Check out the artist of the example textures on her website.

Texture parameters

Certain parameters of a texture can be modified with the WebGL API via the texParameteri function.

gl.texParameteri(gl.TEXTURE_2D, gl.TEXTURE_WRAP_S,

As with other situations where binding points are necessary, μGL uses an object-oriented approach to texture parameters.

texture.wrapSFunction = TextureWrapFunction.CLAMP_TO_EDGE;

WebGL can be told what to do when supplied texture coordinates outside of the interval [0,1][0,1] in the ss and tt directions with the TEXTURE_WRAP_S and TEXTURE_WRAP_T texture parameters, respectively.

  • REPEAT is the default functionality. It makes the texture repeat in the given direction.
  • CLAMP_TO_EDGE makes the texture not repeat at all.
  • MIRRORED_REPEAT makes the texture repeat, but flips the texture across the corresponding axis for each repetition.

A mipmap is a collection of smaller versions of a texture that is used to render a texture at different sizes. A mip is one level of a mipmap. The way that the mipmap is generated can be specified with the TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER and TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER parameters. The minification filter (which corresponds to the former) is used when drawing anything smaller than the largest mip, and the magnification filter (which corresponds to the latter) is used when drawing anything larger than the largest mip.

  • NEAREST chooses one pixel from the largest mip.
  • LINEAR chooses four pixels from the largest mip and blends them.
  • NEAREST_MIPMAP_NEAREST chooses the best mip, then picks one pixel from that mip.
  • LINEAR_MIPMAP_NEAREST chooses the best mip, then blends four pixels from that mip.
  • NEAREST_MIPMAP_LINEAR chooses the best two mips, then chooses one pixel from each and blends them.
  • LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR chooses the best two mips, then chooses four pixels from each and blends them.

Since the magnification filter is used when drawing larger than the largest mip, it can only be NEAREST or LINEAR.

In order for a texture to render, it must be texture complete. A texture is texture complete if it either only reads the first mip (i.e. uses NEAREST or LINEAR as its minification filter) or has a complete mipmap. The easiest way to generate a complete mipmap is with the WebGL API's generateMipmap function.


μGL textures have an equivalent method, but it is automatically executed when necessary.

Texture atlases

A texture atlas is a texture that contains multiple images. This method has a few advantages, such as keeping the shader that uses it simple and reducing the number of draw calls required to draw multiple images. A texture atlas is used the same way as any other texture, but the texture coordinates of each vertex should be modified so that its primitive only displays the relevant part of the texture.

Data textures

Instead of loading texture data from an image, texture data can also be supplied directly from JavaScript. The way that the data is interpreted depends on the internal format of the texture. For example, setting the internal format to R8 causes the texture to expect one eight-bit number per texel (short for texture element; roughly equivalent to a pixel), which it normalizes to a fraction. Each internal format has a corresponding format and data type that must also be specified. For example, with an internal format of R8, the format must be set to RED and the data type must be set to UNSIGNED_BYTE.

const level = 0;
const internalFormat = gl.R8;
const width = 3;
const height = 2;
const border = 0;
const format = gl.RED;
const type = gl.UNSIGNED_BYTE;
const data = new Uint8Array([
	0x80, 0x40, 0x80,
	0x00, 0xC0, 0x00
gl.texImage2D(gl.TEXTURE_2D, level, internalFormat, width,
	height, border, format, type, data);

μGL automatically determines the correct format and data type based on the specified internal format.

texture.internalFormat = TextureFormat.R8;

Textures will not update if their width is not a multiple of their unpack alignment. The unpack alignment defaults to four in order to maintain backwards compatibility with WebGL 1.0, but it can be set to one, two, four, or eight. The texture in the example above has a width of three, so the unpack alignment must be set to one in order for the texture to render. This must be done before executing the function that is being used to update the texture (i.e. texImage2D).

gl.pixelStorei(gl.UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 1);

μGL updates the unpack alignment as necessary.

Projection mapping

Projection mapping is the process of projecting an image. In the following animation, the left and right halves of the canvas are drawn separately by making use of resizeCanvas. The left half shows the view of a camera that is spinning around a letter F, and the right side shows the view of a camera that is floating above the scene. The frustum of the left camera is displayed by the right camera by multiplying a wireframe cube by the left camera's projection matrix.

In order to perform projection mapping, some changes need to be made to the shader program. The vertex shader needs to pass the view projection matrix of the projecting camera to the fragment shader.

#version 300 es

in vec4 a_position;
in vec2 a_texcoord;

// Split up u_matrix into two parts.
uniform mat4 u_viewProjMat;
uniform mat4 u_worldMat;

// Also take the view projection matrix of the projector.
uniform mat4 u_texMat;

out vec2 v_texcoord;
out vec4 v_projTexcoord;

void main() {
	gl_Position = u_viewProjMat * u_worldMat * a_position;
	v_texcoord = a_texcoord;
	v_projTexcoord = u_texMat * u_worldMat * a_position;

The fragment shader needs to determine which texture to use at each position based on whether the position falls within the frustum of the projector.

#version 300 es

precision highp float;

in vec2 v_texcoord;
in vec4 v_projTexcoord;

uniform sampler2D u_texture;
uniform sampler2D u_projTexture;

out vec4 outColor;

void main() {
	Apply perspective manually, since it isn't automatic
	here like it is with `gl_Position`.
	vec3 projTexcoord =
		v_projTexcoord.xyz / v_projTexcoord.w;
	// Check if the fragment is in the projection frustum.
	bool inRange =
		projTexcoord.x >= 0.0
		&& projTexcoord.x <= 1.0
		&& projTexcoord.y >= 0.0
		&& projTexcoord.y <= 1.0;
	// Get the color of the projected texture.
	vec4 projTexColor =
		texture(u_projTexture, projTexcoord.xy);

	// Get the color of the regular texture.
	vec4 texColor = texture(u_texture, v_texcoord);

	Use 100% of the projected texture (and 0% of the
	regular texture) if the fragment is in the projection
	frustum, or 100% of the regular texture (and 0% of the
	projected texture) otherwise.
	float projAmount = inRange ? 1.0 : 0.0;

	// Use the mix amount decided above to set the color.
	outColor = mix(texColor, projTexColor, projAmount);

The next article is about framebuffers.